Introduction: Social Isolation is an Increasingly Important Topic
Could there be anything more frightening than going to a hospital alone for surgery, knowing that no one will be by your side when you wake up afterwards? What if you have no one to turn to for help when you become seriously ill?
As a former rehabilitation case manager, I witnessed too many patients without social support. Too often I scrambled to contact any possible friends or relatives to help, and came up short with utterly no one available. I turned to social science research to better understand why people were so isolated. An alarming AARP study in 2012 on social isolation highlighted formidable barriers to social support:
Living alone (Nearly 40% of adults over 65 are living alone.)
Mobility or sensory impairment
Major life transitions/losses.
Socioeconomic status (low income, limited resources).
Location (rural, unsafe or inaccessible neighborhoods)
Being a caregiver for someone with a major impairment.
Moreover, the study revealed that full-time caregivers are mostly women who are often alone without support while struggling to take care of their own health care needs.
The AARP study convinced me that being socially isolated is most often not a choice. Many societal and economic forces prevent us from being able to count on each other for support. Today we're more likely to find ourselves alone in a hospital regardless of how much or how little we've invested in our relationships. Indeed, in 2012, I found myself alone, stranded in a hospital bed after my hysterectomy because my friend failed to show up as planned. I had no one to take me home, and no one to check in on me during my first days after my surgery. I had made firm arrangements, but people just did not come through at the last minute. This shocking experience opened my eyes to how alone and stranded any of us can be.
Recently I read a New York Times article titled How Social Isolation is Killing Us by Dhruv Khullar, MD, who works at Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Khullar's compassionate view of his socially isolated patients sparked my interest in contacting him for an interview. Annie Brewster and I were thrilled when he responded to our invitation and agreed to talk with us.
Q&A with Dhruv Khular, M.D.
You wrote a powerful piece for the New York Times called How Social Isolation is Killing Us. As a doctor at Mass General Hospital, do you personally see an increase in socially isolated patients?
Dhruv Khullar: All the time--every day, I see real life evidence of how isolated people are. And social isolation is increasing.
Lots of interesting statistics are out there about social isolation, but it’s my personal experience that motivated me to write more about this problem. I see elderly as well as younger patients coping with a lack of social support. We’re now living in a world of smaller families, and we often lack the extended support that larger families once provided. I see older patients living without their core group of support after many of their loved ones have passed away. And many younger people are dealing with the stigma of addiction or mental health issues, so their social support has been thinning out.
In our digital age, we can have 1000 friends on Facebook, but who is going to show up at the hospital for us? Who is really there in our support system? Many connections we have through social media are only secondary supports, not the one or two people we can really count on in a crisis.
What can doctors do to help socially isolated patients?
Dhruv Khullar: I think it’s in the doctor’s purview to ask about the social needs of our patients. Doctors have an important opportunity to screen for social isolation just by asking a couple of questions. We can identify isolated patients by asking simple, concrete questions such as “Who do you have to talk to about your surgery?” Or “Is there someone to take care of you when you go home?” Just two or three basic questions can make a difference. Also, practical, care-based questions are less likely to be threatening for a patient. Instead of starting with psychological issues (“Are you feeling lonely?”) we can ask, “Is someone coming by to see you today?”
And once we have identified a patient who lacks social support, we can make a referral to a social worker, chaplain or hospital volunteer. They are a crucial part of the team. Healthcare has become so complex, it’s better to deliver care in a team-based setting, especially for a patient who has no one to rely on. Though we as doctors can play a vital role in identifying socially isolated patients, we need to alert our team so these patients get connected to the best services that meet their needs.
What you said makes so much sense. It does seem natural that a doctor would ask questions about who is caring for you—who is there for you. And further, I’m wondering this: If your doctor is genuinely concerned that you don’t have anyone there for you, could these questions encourage you to talk openly about your lack of support?
Dhruv Khullar: Yes, I believe asking simple, care-based questions can make it easier for patients to have an honest conversation about their need for more support. And this conversation could alleviate some of the shame and distress about being alone without support. Conversations, even brief talks with doctors, have a way of normalizing what has felt uniquely embarrassing or shameful. A patient might not feel so alone when their doctor emphasizes that social isolation is a common problem.
You got me thinking about the stigma in our society that makes it so difficult to speak up if we lack social support, and are truly alone. We don’t want to appear “needy.” What do we do if we really don’t have people to turn to when we must have surgery, or find ourselves seriously ill? Isn’t talking about being alone and needing help a hard conversation to have?
Dhruv Khullar: Conversations can start with a doctor or healthcare provider, even if we are too ashamed to discuss our lack of support with someone else. Once the conversation has started, patients may be able to face their need for support with less shame and more action. Once again, care-based, concrete questions can help us speak openly, and begin planning our care, including making referrals for the support that is needed.
We need to have more conversations about social isolation. The more candid the better. Hopefully we will find the courage to ask, “Will you be there for me?” And we will keep talking until we know who we can count on.
Besides making referrals to hospital social workers, chaplains or volunteers, is there a particular resource that you find helpful when you identify a socially isolated patient?
Dhruv Khullar: I highly recommend the Health Leads program. This service is available in many hospitals in Massachusetts and other areas of the country. It can help connect patients to services they need, with links to community resources. I use it very often.
When interacting with a patient who is alone and lacking support, what do you say or do to put them at ease?
Dhruv Khullar: In the busyness of the hospital what sometimes gets lost is the human connection. One patient I remember was dying alone, without any loved ones around. At those times, it’s important just to listen. So I listened to whatever he wanted to talk about. Being present was as valuable as anything else I could do.
In my experience, even in just a few minutes, there are moments for deep connection. If we make the time, we can deeply and honestly communicate about what’s most important.
I’m really moved by your words. Thank you so very much for your generosity and insight, Dr. Khullar. And I’m so grateful that you’re encouraging people to talk more about this problem of social isolation. You have validated for me just how vital it is to have honest, realistic conversations when we need to ask others to help us.
Dhruv Khullar: Thank you, it was a pleasure to talk with you today.
More about Dhruv Khullar
Health Leads Program
AARP Study on Isolation: Framework for Isolation in Adults over 50
Dhruv Khullar, M.D., M.P.P. is a resident physician at the Massachusetts General Hospital with interests in health policy, economics, and journalism. He is a contributor at the New York Times and writes regularly for both mainstream and academic publications, exploring evolving trends in medicine and health care. He recently worked at the ABC News Medical Unit, where he helped curate and communicate health information, and was previously at the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB), focusing on Affordable Care Act implementation.
Khullar graduated with honors from Yale University (B.A. in Biology), and earned his medical degree (M.D.) at the Yale School of Medicine. He also received a Masters in Public Policy (M.P.P.) from the Harvard Kennedy School, where he was a fellow at the Center for Public Leadership. His work has appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), New York Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, USA Today, The Atlantic, Slate, Politico, and Scientific American. He was recently recognized by LinkedIn as one of the Top 10 Healthcare Professionals Under 35.